The IPCC's questionable citations list


It seems every single day recently that a new dodgy citation is found in the IPCC’s Assessment Reports. To help keep track of them all, I’m putting them all on one page. If you find a questionable citation, e-mail me or comment below and I’ll include it on the list. If you have a friend who always brings up the IPCC whenever you’re talking about climate change, send him or her here and let them see just how ‘scientific’ the IPCC is. (Credit to Donna Laframboise for AR4 WWF & Greenpeace citations)

Fourth Assessment Report

World Wildlife Fund citations

Allianz and World Wildlife Fund, 2006: Climate change and the financial sector: an agenda for action, 59 pp. [Accessed 03.05.07: filelibrary/pdf/allianz_rep_0605.pdf]

Austin, G., A. Williams, G. Morris, R. Spalding-Feche, and R. Worthington, 2003: Employment potential of renewable energy in South Africa. Earthlife Africa, Johannesburg and World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Denmark, November, 104 pp.

Baker, T., 2005: Vulnerability Assessment of the North-East Atlantic Shelf Marine Ecoregion to Climate Change, Workshop Project Report, WWF, Godalming, Surrey, 79 pp.

Coleman, T., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, D. Karoly, I. Lowe, T. McMichael, C.D. Mitchell, G.I. Pearman, P. Scaife and J. Reynolds, 2004: Climate Change: Solutions for Australia. Australian Climate Group, 35 pp. publications/acg_solutions.pdf

Dlugolecki, A. and S. Lafeld, 2005: Climate change – agenda for action: the financial sector’s perspective. Allianz Group and WWF, Munich [may be the same document as “Allianz” above, except that one is dated 2006 and the other 2005]

Fritsche, U.R., K. Hünecke, A. Hermann, F. Schulze, and K. Wiegmann, 2006: Sustainability standards for bioenergy. Öko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt, WWF Germany, Frankfurt am Main, November

Giannakopoulos, C., M. Bindi, M. Moriondo, P. LeSager and T. Tin, 2005: Climate Change Impacts in the Mediterranean Resulting from a 2oC Global Temperature Rise. WWF report, Gland Switzerland. Accessed 01.10.2006 at

Hansen, L.J., J.L. Biringer and J.R. Hoffmann, 2003: Buying Time: A User’s Manual for Building Resistance and Resilience to Climate Change in Natural Systems. WWF Climate Change Program, Berlin, 246 pp. index.cfm

Lechtenbohmer, S., V. Grimm, D. Mitze, S. Thomas, M. Wissner, 2005: Target 2020: Policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the EU. WWF European Policy Office, Wuppertal

Malcolm, J.R., C. Liu, L. Miller, T. Allnut and L. Hansen, Eds., 2002a: Habitats at Risk: Global Warming and Species Loss in Globally Significant Terrestrial Ecosystems. WWF World Wide Fund for Nature, Gland, 40 pp.

Rowell, A. and P.F. Moore, 2000: Global Review of Forest Fires. WWF/IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, 66 pp. /files/global_review_forest_fires.pdf

WWF, 2004: Deforestation threatens the cradle of reef diversity. World Wide Fund for Nature, 2 December 2004.

WWF, 2004: Living Planet Report 2004. WWF- World Wide Fund for Nature (formerly World Wildlife Fund), Gland, Switzerland, 44 pp.

Zarsky, L. and K. Gallagher, 2003: Searching for the Holy Grail? Making FDI Work for Sustainable Development. Analytical Paper, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Switzerland

This is the famously inaccurate citation about the Himalayan glaciers:

WWF (World Wildlife Fund), 2005: An overview of glaciers, glacier retreat, and subsequent impacts in Nepal, India and China. World Wildlife Fund, Nepal Programme, 79 pp.

Greenpeace citations

Aringhoff, R., C. Aubrey, G. Brakmann, and S. Teske, 2003: Solar thermal power 2020, Greenpeace International/European Solar Thermal Power Industry Association, Netherlands

ESTIA, 2004: Exploiting the heat from the sun to combat climate change. European Solar Thermal Industry Association and Greenpeace, Solar Thermal Power 2020, UK

Greenpeace, 2004: accessed 05/06/07

Greenpeace, 2006: Solar generation. K. McDonald (ed.), Greenpeace International, Amsterdam

GWEC, 2006: Global wind energy outlook. Global Wind Energy Council, Bruxelles and Greenpeace, Amsterdam, September, 56 pp., accessed 05/06/07

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., H. Hoegh-Guldberg, H. Cesar and A. Timmerman, 2000: Pacific in peril: biological, economic and social impacts of climate change on Pacific coral reefs. Greenpeace, 72 pp.

Lazarus, M., L. Greber, J. Hall, C. Bartels, S. Bernow, E. Hansen, P. Raskin, and D. Von Hippel, 1993: Towards a fossil free energy future: the next energy transition. Stockholm Environment Institute, Boston Center, Boston. Greenpeace International, Amsterdam.

Wind Force 12, 2005: Global Wind Energy Council and Greenpeace,, accessed 03/07/07

Other questionable citations

Citing a magazine:

Bowen, N., 2002: Canary in a coalmine. Climbing News, 208, 90-97, 138-139.

Citing a student’s dissertation:

Schwörer, D.A., 1997: Bergführer und Klimaänderung: eine Untersuchung im Berninagebiet über mögliche Auswirkungen einer Klimaänderung auf den Bergführerberuf (Mountain guides and climate change: an inquiry into possible effects of climatic change on the mountain guide trade in the Bernina region, Switzerland). Diplomarbeit der philosophisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Bern.

Citing other Masters students:

Shibru, M., 2001: Pastoralism and cattle marketing: a case study of the Borana of southern Ethiopia, Unpublished Masters Thesis, Egerton University.

Wahab, H.M., 2005: The impact of geographical information system on environmental development, unpublished MSc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 148 pp.

Gray, K.N., 1999: The impacts of drought on Yakima Valley irrigated agriculture and Seattle municipal and industrial water supply. Masters Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 102 pp.

Bohm, M.C., 2006: Capture-ready power plants – Options, technologies and economics, MSc Thesis, MIT. , accessed 05/06/07.

Duncan, A., 2005: Solar building developments. Master Applied Science thesis, Massey University Library, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Sekar, R.S., 2005: Carbon dioxide capture from coal-fired power plants: a real options analysis. MSc Thesis, MIT. accessed 02/07/07.

Banda, A., 2002: Electricity production from sugar industries in Africa: A case study of South Africa. M.Sc thesis, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Kaartinen, T., 2004: Sustainable disposal of residual fractions of MSW to future landfills. M.S. Thesis, Technical University of Helsinki, Espoo, Finland. In Finnish.

Citing a boot and clothing de-contamination guide for Antarctic tour operators:

IAATO, 2005: Update on boot and clothing decontamination guidelines and the introduction and detection of diseases in Antarctic wildlife: IAATO’s perspective. Paper submitted by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) XXVIII. IAATO, 10 pp.

Third Assessment report

World Wildlife Fund citations

Malcolm, J.R. and A. Markham, 2000: Global Warming and Terrestrial Biodiversity Decline. World Wildlife Fund, Gland, Switzerland, 34 pp

Arntzen, J. and S. Ringrose, 1996: Changes in rangelands. In: Climate Change and Southern Africa: An Exploration of Some Potential Impacts and Implications in the SADC Region [Hulme, M. (ed.)]. Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom and World Wildlife Fund International

McNeely, J., K. Miller, W. Reid, and T. Werner, 1990: Conserving the World’s Biological Diversity. World Resources Institute, IUCN, Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund, Gland, Switzerland, and World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 193 pp.

Rogers, D., 1996: Changes in disease vectors. In: Climate Change and Southern Africa: An Exploration of Some Potential Impacts and Implications in the SADC Region [Hulme, M. (ed.)]. Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, and World Wildlife Fund International, Gland, Switzerland.

EEPSEA, 2000: The Indonesian Fires and Haze of 1997: The Economic Toll and the World Wide Fund for Nature. Economy and Environment Program for SE Asia, World Wildlife Fund, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 9 pp. Available via e-mail at

Barber, C.V. and J. Schweithelm, 2000: Trial by Fire: Forest Fire and Forestry Policy in Indonesia’s Era of Crisis and Reform. World Resource Institute, Forest Frontiers, World Wide Fund for Nature(WWF)-Indonesia, Telapak Indonesia Foundation, 448 pp.

Whetton, P.H., 1999: Comment on the 1999 Climate Change Scenarios for Australia. United Kingdom Climatic Research Unit and World Wildlife Fund, Climate Impact Team, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, 3

Freese, C.H., 2000: The Consumptive Use of Wild Species in the Arctic: Challenges and Opportunities for Ecological Sustainability. Report submitted to World Wildlife Fund, Arctic Programme, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 145 pp.

Helmer, W.P., P. Vellinga, G. Litjens, H. Goosen, E. Ruijgrok, and W. Overmars, 1996: Growing with the Sea—Creating a Resilient Coastline. World Wildlife Fund for Nature, Zeist, The Netherlands, 39 pp.

IUCN, WWF and UNEP, 1980: World Conservation Strategy. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Geneva and UNEP, Nairobi.

WWF (World Wildlife Fund), 1996: Sustainable Energy Technology in the South. A Report to WWF by Institute of Environmental Studies, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Bernow, S., K. Cory, W. Dougherty, M. Duckworth, S. Kartha, and M. Ruth, 1999: America’s Global Warming Solutions. Worldwildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

Greenpeace citations

Radford, D., R. Blong, A.M. d’Aubert, I. Kuhnel, and P. Nunn, 1996: Occurence of Tropical Cyclones in the Southwest Pacific Region 1920-1994. Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 35 pp.

Gibson, M.A. and S.A. Schullinger, 1998: Answers from the Ice Edge: The Consequences of Climate Change on Life in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Greenpeace Arctic Network, Anchorage, AK, USA, pp. 32.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O., 1999: Climate Change, Coral Bleaching and the Future of the World’s Coral Reefs. Greenpeace International, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 27 pp.

Greenpeace, 1999: Wind Force 10: a blueprint to achieve 10% of the world’s electricity from wind power by 2020. Greenpeace and European Wind Energy Association Report, Greenpeace, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.



6 responses to “The IPCC's questionable citations list

  1. John Campbell

    February 1, 2010 at 10:40 am

    What’s the fuss? These are all peer-reviewed. After all, someone must have peered at them at one time or another.

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    July 30, 2011 at 4:52 am

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