Yesterday I looked in AR3 and found more Greenpeace citations. Today, I read about the WWF being cited in AR4, so I decided to look again at AR3. I found fifteen WWF citations, and interestingly enough three of them were done together with the Climate Research Unit of East Anglia.
The first is found twice, once in section 5.2.2. Current Models of Ecosystem Change and the second in 15.2.6. Tourism and Recreation of Working Group II:
“Box 5-2. Illustration of Use and Limitation of Ecosystem Movement Models
The study by Malcolm and Markham (2000) is a good example of modeling that uses the ecosystem movement paradigm, but it also demonstrates the inherent weaknesses of the approach.”
“Moreover, a global analysis of habitat change resulting from climate change found that more than 50% of the territory of seven Canadian provinces and greater than 33% of the territory in 11 U.S. states are at risk (Malcolm and Markham, 2000).”
Malcolm and Markham are referenced as such:
Malcolm, J.R. and A. Markham, 2000: Global Warming and Terrestrial Biodiversity Decline. World Wildlife Fund, Gland, Switzerland, 34 pp
The next is in 184.108.40.206.6. Subsistence hunting of Working Group II:
“In many countries, climate change impacts such as reductions in wildlife populations may have the greatest impact on the lowest-income groups—those with the least ability to adapt if hunting opportunities decline (Arntzen and Ringrose, 1996).”
Arntzen and Ringrose are refenced as such:
Arntzen, J. and S. Ringrose, 1996: Changes in rangelands. In: Climate Change and Southern Africa: An Exploration of Some Potential Impacts and Implications in the SADC Region [Hulme, M. (ed.)]. Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom and World Wildlife Fund International, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 62-71
The WWF and the CRU together, what a team. The next is in 220.127.116.11.6. Subsistence hunting of Working Group II:
“Wildlife species also are a significant source of food and medicine for people in many temperate and tropical countries, such as Botswana and Nigeria (McNeely et al., 1990)”
McNeely et al is referenced as such:
McNeely, J., K. Miller, W. Reid, and T. Werner, 1990: Conserving the World’s Biological Diversity. World Resources Institute, IUCN, Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund, Gland, Switzerland, and World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 193 pp.
The next is in 18.104.22.168. Model Projections of Wildlife Responses Working Group II:
“In southern Africa, models project changes in the ranges of tsetse flies, ticks, and mosquitoes (Rogers, 1996).”
Rogers is referenced as such:
Rogers, D., 1996: Changes in disease vectors. In: Climate Change and Southern Africa: An Exploration of Some Potential Impacts and Implications in the SADC Region [Hulme, M. (ed.)]. Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom, and World Wildlife Fund International, Gland, Switzerland.
Another CRU-WWF tag team. The next is in 7.2.1. Nonclimate Trends Affecting Vulnerability to Climate of WG II:
“Table 7-1: Impacts of climate change on human settlements, by impact type and settlement type (impact mechanism)”
This table has various references, and one is EEPSEA. This is referenced as:
EEPSEA, 2000: The Indonesian Fires and Haze of 1997: The Economic Toll and the World Wide Fund for Nature. Economy and Environment Program for SE Asia, World Wildlife Fund, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, 9 pp. Available via e-mail at email@example.com.
The next is in 22.214.171.124. Sensitivity and Key Vulnerabilities, WGII:
“Conversion of natural forests to palm oil plantations in many southeast Asian countries during recent decades (particularly Indonesia and Malaysia) increased the probability of uncontrolled forest fires and increased health and biodiversity impacts during the 1997 ENSO event (Yim, 1999; Barber and Schweithelm, 2000).”
Barber and Schweithelm are referenced as such:
Barber, C.V. and J. Schweithelm, 2000: Trial by Fire: Forest Fire and Forestry Policy in Indonesia’s Era of Crisis and Reform. World Resource Institute, Forest Frontiers, World Wide Fund for Nature(WWF)-Indonesia, Telapak Indonesia Foundation, 448 pp.
The next is in 126.96.36.199. Spatial Patterns of Temperature and Rainfall of WGII:
“According to Whetton (1999), the CSIRO (1996a) scenarios give warmings of 0.3-1.4°C in 2030 and 0.6-3.8°C in 2070 relative to 1990…As discussed by Whetton (1999), both sets of scenarios use results from several coupled models, but the use of the SRES emissions scenarios leads to greater warmings in Hulme and Sheard (1999) than those that are based on the IS92 emission scenarios in CSIRO (1996).”
Whetton is extensively cited on this page. The two above citations are referenced as such:
Whetton, P.H., 1999: Comment on the 1999 Climate Change Scenarios for Australia. United Kingdom Climatic Research Unit and World Wildlife Fund, Climate Impact Team, CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia, 3
Yes, another CRU citation. The next two are both in 188.8.131.52.5. Fisheries of WGII, in fact they are both cited in the same claim:
“Research and management advice for fish stocks is provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES). This authority and others face formidable challenges if the distributions of fish populations change in response to global warming (Hønneland et al., 1999; Freese, 2000).”
Freese is referenced as such:
Freese, C.H., 2000: The Consumptive Use of Wild Species in the Arctic: Challenges and Opportunities for Ecological Sustainability. Report submitted to World Wildlife Fund, Arctic Programme, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 145 pp.
Hønneland is referenced as such:
Hønneland, G., A.K. Jørgensen, and K. Kovacs, 1999: Barents Sea Ecoregion: Reconnaissance Report. Report to the World Wildlife Fund for Nature, Oslo, Norway, 32 pp.
That quote is entirely based on reports submitted to the WWF. The next reference seems to be a mistake. In the reference section of Chapter 17: Small Island States in WGII, they show this reference:
McNeely, J.A., K.R. Miller, W.V. Reid, R.A. Mittermeier, and T.B. Werner (eds.), 1990: Conserving the World’s Biological Diversity. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland; and World Resources Institute, Conservation International, World Wildlife Fund-U.S., and the World Bank, Washington, DC, USA.
Almost identical to the McNeely et al above, but with one different author. This reference isn’t even cited in Chapter 17. McNeely is cited, but in a different paper than the one above. I don’t know if that mistake is in the original report, or if it happened when it was placed online (or if I just couldn’t find it). The last reference in WGII is in 18.4.4. Public Adaptation Decisions, Uncertainty, and Risk Management:
“Adaptation to sea-level rise and extreme climate events is being included in Japanese coastal policies (Mimura and Kawaguchi, 1997), British shoreline management (Leafe et al., 1998), and Dutch law and coastal zone management (Koster and Hillen, 1995; Helmer et al., 1996; Klein et al., 1998).”
Helmer et al is referenced as such:
Helmer, W.P., P. Vellinga, G. Litjens, H. Goosen, E. Ruijgrok, and W. Overmars, 1996: Growing with the Sea—Creating a Resilient Coastline. World Wildlife Fund for Nature, Zeist, The Netherlands, 39 pp.
There are also three citations in WGIII. The first is in 1.3.4 Assessment of Alternatives: Sustainable Development:
“In particular, the goal of the research on sustainable development–especially conservation strategies and action plans–is to show that under appropriate institutional and social conditions there is a synergy rather than conflict between different goals (IUCN, WWF, and UNEP, 1980).”
IUCN, WWF and UNEP, 1980: World Conservation Strategy. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Geneva and UNEP, Nairobi.
The next is in 5.4.3 Industry of WGIII:
“Co-generation in the Indian sugar industry was hindered by the lack of these regulations (WWF, 1996)…”
WWF (World Wildlife Fund), 1996: Sustainable Energy Technology in the South. A Report to WWF by Institute of Environmental Studies, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India.
The last WWF reference I found was in 10.1.2.3 Associated Human Activities Are Pervasive of WGIII:
“While no single technology provides a complete solution
to the problem of controlling emissions of GHGs, a significant
set of existing, emerging, and potential technologies is available
to mitigation climate change, as discussed in Chapters 2,
3 and 42. See also, for example, Energy Innovations, 1997; Interlaboratory Working Group on Energy Efficient and Low-Carbon Technologies, 1997, 2000; Koomey et al., 1998; Bernow et al., 1999…”
Bernow et al is referenced as:
Bernow, S., K. Cory, W. Dougherty, M. Duckworth, S. Kartha, and M. Ruth, 1999: America’s Global Warming Solutions. Worldwildlife Fund, Washington, DC.
The World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) is listed as a funder on the CRU’s History of the Climatic Research Unit page. I believe this is around the same number of WWF citations found in AR4. It is now clear that between Greenpeace and the WWF the IPCC has been using questionable sources for many years.